Vegetable Seed Germination, Planting Time: A Complete Guide | Agriculture (2023)


Germination of vegetable seeds and sowing times

Seed germination is the process by which an organism grows from a seed. The seeds of the fruit or vegetable are designed to spread out into the environment and grow into new plants in what is called a process.collective. Vegetable seed germination means growing another plant species from a single seed into a plant. A general example of seed germination is the germination of a seedling from an angiosperm or gymnosperm. Sowing is the act of planting.

let's discuss thoseProcess of seed germination and sowing in different vegetables;

Vegetable Seed Germination, Planting Time: A Complete Guide | Agriculture (1)


  • A bean seed begins to germinate when the soil reaches the right temperature and moisture penetrates the seed coat. Bean seeds germinate or sprout when water dissolves or the hard covering around the seed or embryo breaks.
  • Beans are sown from early October to mid-March, depending on the weather. Sowing takes place from 20 to 40 mm deep, depending on the climate.
  • In general, beans are sown in rows about 500 mm apart and between 50 and 100 mm between plants.
  • Bean Seed GerminationThe temperature is 70°F to 80°F and this germination is slow and poor when the soil temperature is below 60F.
  • The germination process can take two weeks or more if the soil temperature is below 60°
  • If the seeds are small (3000 per kg) and sown at a distance of 50x750 mm, then 90 kg of seeds will be needed per hectare. For larger bean seeds (1500 per kg), 180 kg of seeds per hectare are needed when germination is 100%.


  • Broccoli seed takes about 5 to 10 days to germinate depending on soil temperature. Warm soil speeds up the broccoli germination process, while cold soil slows it down.
  • Broccoli seeds germinate best in temperatures between 45°F and 85°F and can be germinated outdoors, in a greenhouse or in the soil of a garden.
  • Sow the seeds 6 to 8 mm deep in the seed starter mix.
  • The best time to sow seeds is from mid-August to mid-September.
  • sowing typein broccoli can be done by seeding and row seeding methods.


  • Kale seeds germinate best when exposed to a constant temperature of 65°F to 70°C. In this temperature range, cabbage seeds will germinate within three to four days.
  • OCabbage seeds germinateTemperatures range from 45 to 85 degrees Fahrenheit. Outside the ideal temperature range, seeds can take four to 14 days to germinate. Colder temperatures slow down the germination process, while warmer temperatures speed it up.
  • Osowing seedsRight in the garden, you should wait for spring, when the soil temperature reaches at least 20 °C and the soil can be cultivated.
  • Cabbage seeds require a planting depth of 1/2 to ¾ inch and inch spacing, with seedlings later thinned out to 12 to 24 inches apart, in rows at least 18 to 34 inches apart.


  • spinach seed germinationit takes 7-14 days, but sometimes it can take up to 3 weeks for the seeds to germinate in cold soil.
  • Spinach seeds germinate best at temperatures between 40°F and 75°C. For proper seed germination, the soil should not be warmer than 21°C.
  • Plant spinach seeds a half inch deep and two inches apart in beds or rows. Spinach produces beautifully in cool autumn conditions, but it is difficult to get the seed to germinate in the warm conditions of late summer.
  • Plant spinach seeds ½ inch to 1 inch deep and cover lightly with soil. Sow 12 seeds per standing row or spread over a wide row or bed.
Vegetable Seed Germination, Planting Time: A Complete Guide | Agriculture (2)

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  • Cabbage seeds germinate best in warm soil. Seeds germinate in 5 to 7 days at or near 70°F (21°C); Seeds can sometimes take up to two weeks to germinate if the soil is cold.
  • Cover the seeds with about half an inch of soil and don't allow the seeds to dry out before germinating.
  • Plant kale seeds in early spring or late summer, or in a fall or winter season. Sow the seed 6-13mm deep.
  • Sow the seeds 10 cm apart; thin posterior seedlings 40-45 cm (16 to 18 in) apart; Use the dilution in salads.
  • If you are sowing kale in the summer for the fall harvest, place the seed on a folded damp paper towel, place in a plastic bag, and refrigerate for five days before sowing.


  • Peas will sprout in 21 to 30 days if the soil temperature is 38°F and the germination rate or number of seeds sprouting is below this.
  • At temperatures of 25 to 22 °C, pea seeds germinate in 7 to 14 days.
  • Sow seeds outdoors 4 to 6 weeks before the last spring frost, when the soil temperature reaches at least 7°C.
  • Early sowing is in October, while ideal varieties are sown in November in the North Indian plains. In the hills, the first crop of peas is sown from mid-March to the end of May, while the second crop is sown in autumn.


Vegetable Seed Germination, Planting Time: A Complete Guide | Agriculture (3)
  • Sowing tomato seeds should be done in late winter, around mid-March, indoors and at a temperature of around 65°F to 70°F (18°C to 20°C).
  • Tomato seeds usually germinate within 5 to 10 days. It is best to keep the seed germination temperature in the range of 21 to 27°C (70 to 80°F).
  • The lower the temperature, the slower the seed germination. However, temperatures below 10°C (50°F) or above 35°C (95°F) are bad for germination.
  • Sow in late February to mid-March in a heated greenhouse or in a warm south-facing window. The temperature of the compost must be around 22°C for the seeds to germinate; Young plants also want to be kept warm until early summer, when the soil temperature is above at least 10 degrees.

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  • Onion seeds germinate fastest at a temperature of 20-25°C (68-77°F) and with slight temperature drops at night.
  • Warm soil temperatures, on the other hand, can triggerOnion seeds germinatein just 4 days.
  • Sow ¼ to ½ (6-12 mm) deep; Plant about 1 inch deep for large bulbs, 2 inches deep for chives, and place rows 12 inches apart.
  • Onion seeds should germinate in 4 to 10 days at an optimum temperature of around 21°C (70°F); Germination takes longer in cooler soil, but germination can be slow in cold soil.


  • Alfalfa can germinate in temperatures above 37°F, but the ideal seed germination temperature is between 65 and 77°F.
  • As the soil warms, the rate of seed germination increases due to increased water movement within the seeds and due to an increase in the rate of other metabolic activities associated with germination.
  • Germination of alfalfa seeds and emergence of seedlings takes about three to seven days.
  • Sowing takes place in spring to summer.


  • Germination of cauliflower vegetable seedsit usually lasts eight to ten days.
  • Sow cauliflower seeds 1/2 inch deep and 2 to 3 inches apart. Thin plants 15 to 24 inches apart; Space rows 24 to 30 inches apart.
  • The ideal soil temperature for seed germination is 80°F. However, cauliflower will germinate in temperatures as low as 50°F.


  • Sow indoors 14 to 6 weeks before the last spring frost. Transplant the seedlings when they are 8 cm tall at the time of the last frost and sow the seeds 3 mm deep.
  • The seed will sprout in ten days; Soak the seeds in water overnight before sowing.
  • Celery seeds germinate best at 70 to 75°F during the day and 60 degrees at night.
  • The best method for germinating celery seeds is to grow the plants indoors in seed trays. Celery seeds take 14 to 21 days to germinate and come out of the soil.


  • Okra seeds usually germinate in 2 to 12 days.
  • Okra seeds take 27 to 30 days to germinate in soil at 65°F. If the soil is at 75°F, seed germination time is cut in half.
  • Sow 3 to 4 seeds in a pot or crosswise; Then cut the weakest seedlings when the strongest seedling is about 5 cm tall and sow the seed 13 mm deep.
  • The ideal soil temperature for okra seed germination is 29°C.

Moringa or drumstick

  • Soak moringa seeds in water for 24 hours to speed up the germination process.
  • Coxinha sowing time As it is a hot season plant, coxinha is usually planted after the end of the cold season.
  • The Moringa plant germinates within 12 days.
  • The planting of drumsticks is usually done in June, after the first rain.
  • In the sowing method, the seeds must be planted in an area with light and dry soil and placed in pits 30 cm deep and 30 cm wide. Plant 3 to 5 seeds on each plant, spaced 5 cm (2 in.) apart, and water the soil, keeping the top soil moist.


  • Chicory seeds germinate at 5-29°C (41-85°F), but the highest percentage of germination occurs around 24°C (75°F), depending on the variety and seed.
  • Sow seeds 6 seeds per foot, rows 12 to 18 inches apart. Cover the seed lightly, about 1/8 inch, and gently tamp the soil.
  • Dry soil must be watered to ensure freshness and moisture, as well as uniform germination. Thin the seedlings 8 inches apart once they are big enough to handle.
  • Chicory can be sown directly outdoors in spring. Optimum soil temperatures for germination are 65 to 70 degrees F and sow seeds ¼" deep in rows 20" apart.
  • Chicory seeds germinate in 7 to 21 days.


  • Plant cress seeds outdoors in spring when the soil is warm; Minimum temperature of 8°C (46°F). Or watercress seeds can be sown directly into the containers you want them to grow in.
  • To start the plants early in the year, sow the seeds in pots or trays of moist compost from mid-January to the end of March.
  • Watercress seeds germinate in the soil for about 7 to 14 days.

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eggplant or eggplant

  • Eggplant or eggplant seeds will germinate in 7 to 14 days depending on the heat, moisture provided, moisture content and age of the seed.
  • Eggplant seeds germinateat temperatures between 60-95°F. (15-35°C) and seedlings hatch in seven to ten days.
  • Sow eggplant or eggplant seeds ¼ to ½ inch deep, 4 to 5 inches apart.
  • Eggplant seeds germinate in about five to six days.


  • Sow cucumbers in small pots with seeds or all-purpose soil mix starting in spring. Sow two cucumber seeds about 3 cm deep, then water well.
  • Cucumbers need temperatures of at least 20°C to germinate, so place the pots in a greenhouse to speed up germination or simply wait until late spring to start.
  • The temperature range for cucumber germination is between 60°F and 90°F and do not plant until the soil reaches 65°F.
  • At lower temperatures, germination can take ten days or more.


  • Pumpkin seeds will germinate in 4 to 10 days at 85°F (29°C) or hotter.
  • Sow pumpkins indoors two to three weeks before the last expected spring frost, and transplant them into the garden after danger of frost has passed.
  • Sow pumpkins outdoors when the soil temperature reaches 21°C.
  • Pumpkin seeds do not germinate in soil temperatures below 18°C.
Vegetable Seed Germination, Planting Time: A Complete Guide | Agriculture (4)


  • The ideal soil temperature range is 7 to 30°C (45 to 85°F).
  • Carrot seeds take 14 to 21 days to germinate. Because carrot seeds are tiny, they must be sown shallow. The trick is to keep the topsoil moist during the long germination period.
  • No-tillage from April to mid-July for July to November harvests.
  • Sow winter harvest carrots directly in the first two weeks of August. Sow at three week intervals for a continuous harvest.


  • Chard seeds will germinate in 5 to 7 days at a temperature of 16 to 18 °C (60 °F to 65 °F) or close, but sometimes the seeds can take up to three weeks to germinate if the soil is cold.
  • Germination will not occur in soil with a temperature below 50°F (10°C).
  • Sow the chard seeds ½ to 1 inch deep and 2 to 6 inches apart, in rows 18 to 24 apart.
  • Sow seeds 1 inch apart; then thin seedlings up to 15 cm apart; Use the dilution in salads.


  • Seeds germinate in about 19 to 14 days at or near 21°C (70°F), but sometimes seeds can take up to 2 weeks to germinate if the soil is cool.
  • sow endiveendive togetherin the garden four to six weeks before the average date of the last spring frost.
  • Endive seeds for planting indoors can be sown 8 to 10 weeks before the last medium frost.
  • Sow endive seeds 1 to 2 inches apart; then thin seedlings with a distance of 15-23 cm. Sow the seed 6 mm deep.

Arugula or Arugula

  • Arugula seeds take five to seven days to germinate in soil at 40 to 55°F, but at room temperature of around 70°F the seeds will germinate in a few days.
  • Sow the seeds 5 to 10 cm apart; then thin seedlings at a distance of 15 cm and sow 6 mm deep.
  • Arugula seeds will germinate in 5 to 7 days at or near 60°F (7°C), but the seed will germinate in soil as cold as 40°F (4°C).
  • Keep the soil evenly moist until the seeds germinate, then keep the soil moist until the seedlings are well established.


  • Beet seeds can germinate as low as 40°F. Sow the seeds about 1 inch apart and cover with a 1/4 to ½ inch layer of soil.
  • Sow the seeds ½ (12 mm) deep, taking care to press the soil down firmly; Often, beets do not germinate if there is little contact with the soil.
  • Sow the seeds 2 inches apart, then thin out to 10 to 15 cm (4 to 6 inches) apart for large beets and 2 to 4 inches (2 to 4 inches) apart for leafy greens.
  • Seeds should germinate in 3 to 10 days in an ideal temperature range of around 21°C (70°F); Germination takes longer in colder soils.


  • Sorrel can be grown from seeds sown in the garden 2 to 3 weeks before the average date of the last frost in spring.
  • Sow the seeds of the sorrel plant in spring when the soil is warm.
  • Sow sorrel seeds 1/2 inch deep and 2 to 3 inches apart. Thin successful seedlings 12 to 18 inches apart when plants are 6 to 8 weeks old. Space rows 18 to 24 inches apart.

a tent

  • The soil temperature must be at least 25°C for Tinda seeds to germinate.
  • Tinda vegetable seeds germinate in the first 6 to 8 days.
  • Sow the seeds in one side of the canal. And keep seedlings in pairs/hole 3 feet apart after 15 days. From sowing to harvesting, the time is about 45 days.
  • Soak tinda seeds overnight. Sow 2-3 seeds about 2-3 cm deep and keep moist.

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  • Sow lentils in the spring two to three weeks before the average last frost date.
  • Lentils can be started indoors before being transplanted into the garden; Lentil seeds germinate in ten days at 20°C.
  • Lentils are sown directly into the plot's seed holes in spring and harvested in summer.

guar bean or cluster

  • During the rainy season, seeds are sown 2 to 3 cm deep on ridges and in furrows during the summer months.
  • Guar should be planted when the soil temperature is above 70°F; The ideal soil temperature for germination is 86°F.
  • Complete guar sowing season from mid-July to mid-August. When sowing, use a row spacing of 30 cm and sow the seeds 2-3 cm deep.
  • For guar, sowing is carried out with seeder, Pora or Kera method.


  • The ideal temperature for basil seed germination is 21°C (70°F).
  • Seeds should sprout in five to 10 days and sow basil seeds an inch deep.
  • Basil seeds take between 8 and 14 days to germinate and emerge from the soil.
  • Basil seeds germinate well as long as temperatures stay between 65 degrees Fahrenheit and 85 degrees Fahrenheit.


  • Lavender seeds can take up to a month to germinate, although they sometimes sprout in as little as 14 days. Help the germination process by placing seed trays in a warm place, around 70 degrees Fahrenheit is an ideal temperature.
  • Sow lavender seeds on the surface of moist compost from February to July.
  • Lavender seeds germinate more evenly when seeds can be collected in the fall and sown on the surface of a seed tray with a lower heat setting of 4-10°C (40-50°F).
  • The seedlings will germinate in about 2 weeks and it will take a while for them to start looking like lavender.

cilantro or coriander

  • Coriander seeds germinate in about 7 to 10 days.
  • Seeds germinate in soil temperatures of 55 to 68 degrees Fahrenheit. Cilantro plants can withstand freezing temperatures.
  • Coriander seeds will germinate within two to three weeks and produce leaf growth quickly.
  • Sow cilantro in spring 2 to 3 weeks after the last expected frost date.
  • Coriander is sown from late March to early September.

This is all about different types of vegetable seed germination process and sowing time.

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