Answers to study questions - business computing and more (2023)

Chapter 1

1. What five components does an information system consist of?

one. HHardware,Software, data, people, processes

2. What are three examples of information system hardware?

one. they existonenumbervonpossibleAnswers: a PC, a printer, a mouse, tablets, cell phones, etc.

3. Microsoft Windows is an example of which information system component?

one. It is an operating system that is part of the software component.

4. What is application software?

one. Software that does something useful.

5. What role do people play in information systems?

one. The text includes examples such as helpdesk support, systems analyst, programmer, and CIO.

6. What is the definition of a process?

one. A process is a series of steps taken to achieve a desired outcome or goal.

7. Which was invented first, the personal computer or the Internet (ARPANET)?

one. OThe Internet was activated in 1969;The personal computer was introduced in 1975.

8. In what year were restrictions on commercial use of the internet first lifted? When were eBay and Amazon founded?

one. The restrictions were lifted in 1991,AmazonaswarFounded1994 uEbaywarFoundedim 1995.

9. What does it mean to say that we are in a "post-PC world"?

one. The PC will no longer be the primary way people interact and do business.

10. What is Carr's main argument about information technology?

one. This information technology is only a commodity and cannot be used to gain a competitive advantage.

Chapter 2

1. Write your own description of the termHardware for information systemsmeans.

one. Answers vary, Then whatmust say AboutHardware for information systemsexistingthe physical parts of computing devices that can actually be touched.

2. How does Moore's Law affect the various hardware components described in this chapter?

one. The studentmust choose one of the components and discuss the implications of the fact that computingbend speedevery two years. Most devices are getting smaller, faster, cheaper and this should be stated in the answer.

3. Write a summary of one of the items linked in the Embedded Computing section.

one. The student must write an abstract of one of the linked articles.

4. Explain why the personal computer is now considered a commodity.

one. The PC has become a commodity in that there is little difference between computers and the main factor that determines their sale is price.

5. The CPU can also be thought of as the _____________ of the computer.

one. Brain

6. List the following in ascending order (slowest to fastest): megahertz, kilohertz, gigahertz.

uma. Quilohertz, Megahertz, Gigahertz

7. What is a computer bus?

one. The bus is the electrical connection between various computer components.

8. Name two differences between memory and hard disk.

one. RAM is volatile;The hard drive is non-volatile. Accessing data in RAM is faster than on disk.

9. What are the advantages of solid state drives over hard drives?

one. The main benefit ised: an SSD has much faster dataAccess speeds than a conventional hard drive.

10. How heavy was the first commercially successful portable computer?

one. The Compaq PC weighed 28 pounds.

Chapter 3

1. Create your own software definition. Explain the most important terms in your definition.

one. A multitude ofanswersit ispossible,Then whatmust be similaradefinition aaText: Software is the set of instructions that tells hardware what to do. Software is created through the programming process.

2. What functions does the operating system have?

one. OThe operating system manages the computer's hardware resources, provides the user interface components, and provides software developers with a platform for writing applications.

3. Which of the following operating systems and which apps are: Microsoft Excel, Google Chrome, iTunes, Windows, Android, Angry Birds.

one. Microsoft Excel (App), Google Chrome (App), iTunes (App),window(operating system), Android (operating system)hat), Angry Birds (App)

4. What is your favorite software application? What tasks does it help you with?

one. Students will have multiple answers to this question. You must select an application, not an operating system. They should be able to list at least one thing that will help them achieve something.

5. What is a "killer" app? What was the killer app for PC?

one. A killer app is a software application that is so useful that people buy the hardware just to run it. The killer app for the PC was the spreadsheet (Visicalc).

6. How would you rate software that runs on mobile devices? Divide these applications into at least three basic categories and provide an example of each.

one. There are several ways to answer this question. Students should recognize that there are mobile operating systems and mobile apps. Probably,Studentswill divide mobile applications into several categories: games, GPS, reading, communication, etc.

7. Explain what an ERP system does.

one. An ERP (enterprise resource forlanning) is a software application with a centralized database used across the enterprise.

8. What is open source software? How is it different from closed source software? Give an example of each.

one. Open source software is software that makes the source code available for anyone to copy and use. It is free to download, copy and distribute. Closed-source software does not provide the source code and is generally not free to download, copy, and distribute. they existLotsexamplesvonboth, such as: Firefox (open source), Linux (open source), iTunes (closed source), Microsoft Office (closed source).

9. What does a software license grant?

one. Not all software licenses are the same, but in general they arejgrant userthe rightlimited use of the software. Determine the terms of the licenseuserrightim Detail.

10. How did the Y2K problem (Year 2000) affect sales of ERP systems?

one. Businesses bought ERP software to replace their older systems to avoid Year 2000 issues with their software.

Chapter 4

1. What is the difference between data, information and knowledge?

one. Data is raw facts and statistics without context. Data can be quantitative or qualitative. Information is data in context. Knowledge is information that has been aggregated and analyzed and can be used for decision making.

2. In your own words, explain how the data component relates to the hardware and software components of information systems.

one. they existnumerousanswers to this question,but everything must bevariations onThe following: Data is processed by hardware via software. A database is software running on hardware. The hardware stores the data, the software processes the data.

3. What is the difference between quantitative data and qualitative data? In what situations can the number 42 be considered a qualitative date?

one. Quantitative data is numeric, the result of a measurement, count, or other mathematical calculation. Qualitative data are descriptive. Number 42 can be qualitative when it is a designation rather than a measurement, count or calculation. For example: this player'The number 42 is written on his t-shirt.

4. What are the characteristics of a relational database?

one. A relational database is a database in which data is organized in one or more tables. Each table has a number of fields that define the type of data stored in the table. A record is an instance of a set of fields in a table. All tables are linked by one or more common fields.

5. When does it make sense to use a personal DBMS?

one. When working on a smaller database for personal use or when not connected to the network.

6. What is the difference between a spreadsheet and a database? Name three differences between them.

one. A database is often more powerful and complex than a spreadsheet because it can handle multiple types of data and link them together. Some differences: A database has defined field types, a spreadsheet doesn't. A database uses a standardized query language (e.g. SQL), a spreadsheet does not. A database can hold much larger amounts of data than a spreadsheet.

7. Describe what the termnormalizationmeans.

one. Normalizing a database means designing it in a way that 1) reduces data duplication between tables and 2) gives the table as much flexibility as possible.

8. Why is it important to define the data type of a field when designing a relational database?

one. A data type tells the database what functions can be performed on the data. The second important reason for the definitionaData type is such that the right amount of space is allocatedaDice.

9. Name a database that you interact with frequently. What would some of the field names be?

one. The student can choose any type of system to interact with e.g. B. Amazon or his school's online systems. The fields would be the names of the data collected, such asfirst name, orhousehold.

10. What is metadata?

one. Metadata is data about data.Refers to data used to describe other data, e.g. B. the length of a track in iTunes that describes the music file.

11. Name three advantages of using a data warehouse.

one. The text lists the following (the student must select at least three of them):

I. The process of developing a data warehouse forces an organization to better understand what data it is currently collecting and, just as important, what data is not being collected.

ii. A data warehouse offers a centralized view of all data collected in the company and provides a meansvonIdentification of inconsistent data.

iii. Once all data has been identified as consistent, an organization can generate a version of the truth. This is important if the company wants to report consistent statistics about itself, e.g. B. Sales or number of employees.

4. A data warehouse allows snapshots of data to be taken over time. This creates a historical record of data that allows for trend analysis.

v. A data warehouse provides tools for combining data that can provide new information and analysis.

12. What is data mining?

one. Data mining is the process of analyzing data to find previously unknown trends, patterns and connections in order to make decisions.

Chapter 5

1. What were the first four places connected to the Internet (ARPANET)?

one. UCLA, Stanford,MIT and the University of Utah

2. What does the term meanPackagemy?

one. The basic unit of data transmitted over the Internet. Every package has the sender's address, the destination address, a sequence number and part of the overall message to be sent.

3. Which came first, the Internet or the World Wide Web?

one. tis the Internet

4. What was revolutionary about Web 2.0?

one. Anyone can publish content to the web without having to understand HTML or web server technology.

5. What was the so-called killer app for the internet?

Per. andelectronic mail (e-Correspondence)

6. What does a connection do alanges BandConnection?

one. A broadband connection is defined as one with speeds of at least 256,000 bps.

7. What does the term VoIP mean?

one. Voice over Internet Protocol - A way to make voice calls over the Internet.

8. What is a LAN?

one. ONEnLAN is a local area network that usually operates in the same building or campus.

9. What is the difference between an intranet and an extranet?

one. An intranet consists of tthe amount of websites and resources availableWhat we havecompany network.These items are not available to people outside of the company. an extranet It ispart of the corporate network, theIt isbe made securely accessible externally. Extranets can be used to allow customers to log in and check the status of their orders or suppliers to check their customers' inventory levels.

10. What is Metcalfe's Law?

one. Metcalfe's Law states that the value of a telecommunications network is proportional to the square of the number of users connected to the system.

Chapter 6

1. Briefly define each of the three members of the information security triad.

one. TThe three members are as follows:

I. Confidentiality: We want to be able to restrict access to who can seeinformation given.

ii. Integrity: the guarantee that the information retrieved has not been altered andUly represents what is intended.

iii. Availability: The information can be accessed and changed by any authorized person within a reasonable period of time.

2. What does the term meanauthenticationmy?

one. The process of ensuring that a personwer he or sheclaimsbe his

3. What is multifactor authentication?

one. Using more than one authentication method. The methods are: something you know, something you have and something you are.

4. What is role-based access control?

one. by functionAccess Control (RBAC), rather than granting specific users access rights to an information resource, users are assigned roles, and access is then assigned to those roles.

5. What is encryption for?

one. maintaintransferData secrecy so only those with the right key can read it.

6. What are two good examples of a complex password?

one. There are many examples for this. Students must provide pattern passwords that are at least eight characters longcomat least one capital letter, one special character and one number.

7. What is pretense?

one. Pretexting occurs when an attacker calls a helpdesk or security administratorand pretendsbe privateauthorized userAre you having trouble logging in?.Then provide some personal informationthe authorized user,the attackerconvincesasecurityPerson to reset password andtell him what it is.

8. What are the components of a good backup plan?

one. Knowing what needs to be backed up, regular backups of all data, external storage of all backupsdata and a test of the recovery process.

9. What is a firewall?

one. A firewall can be either a hardware firewall or a software firewall. A hardware firewall is a device that connects to the network and filters packets based on a set of rules. A software firewall runs on top of the operating system and intercepts packets arriving at a computer.

10. What does the term meanphysical securitymy?

one. Physical security is the protection of the actual hardware and network components that store and transmit information resources.

Chapter 7

1. What is the productivity paradox?

one. The productivity paradox isrelated toErikvon Brynjolfsson Find, based on research he conducted in the early 1990s,that the addition of information technology to businessdid not improve productivity at all.

2. Summarize Carr's argument in Does It Matter.

one. Information technology is now a commodity and cannot be used to give a company a competitive advantage.

3. How is the 2008 Brynjolfsson and McAfee study different from previous studies? how is it same

one. It's different because it shows that IT can bring a competitive advantage under the right conditions. The same is in itthe meaningwhich shows that IT alone does not bring a competitive advantage.

4. What does it mean for a company to have a competitive advantage?

one. A company has a competitive advantage over its competitors when it is able to generate profits that are above the industry average.

5. What are the primary and supporting value chain activities?

one. The primaryactivitiesit isThatdirectly affecting the creation of a product or service. Supportactivitiesit isThatsupporting primary activities. Primary: inbound logistics, operations, outbound logistics, sales/marketing and service. Support: enterprise infrastructure, human resources, technology development,and acquisition.

6. What is the overall impact of the Internet on industry profitability? Who was the real winner?

one. The overall effectwara decline in the average profitability of the industry. The consumer was the real winner.

7. How does EDI work?

one. EDI is the computer-to-computer exchange of business documents in a standard electronic format between business partners.

8. Give an example of a semi-structured decision and explain what inputs would be required to support the decision making.

one. In a semi-structured decision, most of the factors necessary to make the decision are known, but human experience and other external factors can still play a role. The student must provide an example of a decision that uses an information system to provide information but is not made by the system. Examples would be: budget decisions, diagnosis of an illness and investment decisions.

9. What makes a collaborative information system?

one. A collaborative system is software that allows multiple users to interact on a document or topic to complete a task or make a decision.

10. According to Brynjolfsson and McAfee's 2008 article, what role can IT play in competitive advantage?

one. The article suggests thatIT can affect competitive advantage ifGood management develops and deliversIT supportedprocessInnovation.

Chapter 8

1. What does the term meanbusiness processmy?

one. A process is a series of tasks that are completed in order to achieve a goal. A business process is therefore a process aimed at achieving a goal for a company.

2. What are three examples of business processes from a job you had or an organization you observed?

one. Students can react to this in almost any way they like. Examples must consist of more than one step.

3. What is the value of documenting a business process?

one. There are many answers to that. From the text: allows better control of the process,eProStandardization.

4. What is an ERP system? How does an ERP system apply best practices to an organization?

one. An ERP (enterprise resource forlanning) is a software application with a centralized database used across the enterprise. It enforces best practices through the business processes built into the software.

5. What is one of the criticisms of ERP systems?

one. ERP systemscan lead to the commercialization of business processes, which means that every company that uses an ERPSystemwill run the business processes in the same way.

6. What is Business Process Reengineering? How is it different from incrementally improving a process?

one. business process rE-engineering (BPR) occurs when a business process is designed from scratch. It differs from the incremental improvement of a processon this oneit doesn't just take the existing process and modify it.

7. Why has BPR gotten a bad rap?

one. BPR has become an excuse Lay off employees and try to do the same amount of work with fewer employees.

8. List guidelines for redesigning a business process.

one. the policyare the following:

I. Organize around outcomes, not tasks.

ii. Let those who use the results of the process run the process.

iii. It subsumes the work of processing information into the actual work that produces the information. Treat geographically distributed resources as if they were centralized.

4. Link parallel activities instead of integrating their outcomes.

v. Set decision points where work is done and create controls in the process.

saw. Capture information once at the source.

9. What is business process management? What role does it play in allowing a company to differentiate itself?

one. Business process management (BPM) can be viewed as an intentional effort to plan, document, implement, and deliver by an organization's Business processes supported by information technology. Can play a role in the distinctionthrough integrated reports andTraining of employees, application of best practices,eenforce consistency.

10. What does ISO certification mean?

one. ISO certification shows that you know what you do, do what you say and have documented your processes.

Chapter 9

1. Describe the role of a systems analyst.

one. Understand business requirements and translate them into requirementsvonan information system.

2. What are some of the different roles of a computer engineer?

one. Hardware Engineer, Software Engineer, NetworkStandard Engineer, System Engineer

3. What are the duties of a computer operator?

one. DDuties include updating operating systems, ensuring available memory and disk space, and monitoring the computer's physical environment.

4. What does the CIO do?

one. the ICThis aligns the plans and operations of the information systems with the strategic goals of the organization. This includes tasks such as budgeting, strategic planning and personnel decisions.relevant forthe role of information systems.

5. Describe the job of a project manager.

one. A project manager is responsible for keeping projects on time and on budget. This person works with project stakeholders to keep the team organized and communicates project status to management.

6. Explain why you have two different careers in information systems.

one. Enable career growth for those who don't want to manage other employees but want to focus on technical skills.

7. What are the pros and cons of centralizing the IT function?

one. There are several possible answers here. ServicesvonCentralization involves more control over the company's systems and data. Disadvantages include more limited availability of IT resources.

8. What influence does information technology have on the organization of companies?

one. The organizational structure has been flattened, with fewer levels of management.

9. What are the five types of information system users?

one. IInnovatoren, Early Adopters, Early Majoarity, late majority, latecomer

10. Why should an organization outsource?

one. because you needa specific skill for a limited period of time,e/or because you can save costs through outsourcing.

Chapter 10

1. What are the steps of the SDLC methodology?

one. The steps are pre-analysis, system analysis, system design, programming, testing, implementation and maintenance.

2. What is RAD software development?

one. Rapid Application Development (RAD) is a software development (or systems development) methodology that focuses on quickly creating a working model of the software, getting feedback from users, and then using that feedback to update the working model.

3. What makes the Lean methodology unique?

one. The main difference between the Lean methodology and the other methodologies is that the full set of requirements for thesystem isIt is not known when the project will be released.

4. What are the three differences between second and third generation languages?

one. three kThe differences are as follows:

I. The words used in the language: Third generation languages ​​use moreEnglish-similar words as second-generation languages.

ii. Hardware specificity: Third generation languages ​​are not hardware specific, second generation languages ​​are.

iii. Learning curve: Third generation languages ​​are easier to learn and use.

5. Why would an organization consider developing its own software application when it's cheaper to buy one?

one. They may want to build their own to thave something unique (dunlike its competitors), and orsomething that better suits your business processes. You can also do this if you have more time.e/or more money available for it.

6. Was ist responsives Design?

one. Responsive design is a methodvonin developmentWebsitesthis allowsyoudisplayed on many different types of devices without losing capacity or effectiveness. With a responsive website, the size of the images adapts to the size of the device'Computer screen and text flow and scale appropriately for optimal viewing.

7. What is the relationship between HTML and CSS in website design?

one. While HTML is used to define the components of a web page, Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) are used to define the styles of the components on a page.

8. What is the difference between the pilot deployment methodology and the parallel deployment methodology?

one. Implemented the pilot methodologysnew software only for a group of people while the rest of the users use the previous version of the software. The parallel implementation methodology usedsthe old and new apps at the same time.

9. What is change management?

one. Monitoring changes in an organization.

10. What are the four different implementation methods?

one. i.edirectly cexternal, pilot, parallel, phased

Chapter 11

1. What does the term meanglobalizationmy?

one.globalizationrefersfor the integration of goods, services and culturesamong the peoples of the world.

2. How does Friedman define the three epochs of globalization?

one. The three age groups are as follows:

EU. „Globalization 1.0it happened from 1492 to about 1800. Back then, globalization was focused on countries. It was about how much electricity, wind power and steam power a country had and how creatively it was used. The world has gotten smallerfarto sizeAverage.

ii. „Globalization 2.0took place from about 1800 to 2000, only interrupted by the two world wars. In this era was the dynamic force of changecompiled bymultinational companies. The world has gotten smallerAverageto sizelittle.

iii. „Globalization 3.0it is our current era, beginning in the year 2000. The convergence of personal computers, fiber optic internet connections and software has aFlat world platformwhich enables small groups and even individuals to operate globally. The world has gotten smallerlittleto sizetiny.

3. Which technologies have most influenced globalization?

one. There are several answers to this. The most obvious are probably the web, the GUIwindowand the World Wide Web as well as workflow software.

4. What are the benefits of globalization?

one. The advantages include the ability to find specialists and workers around the world, the ability to work 24 hours a day and a larger market for products.

5. What are the challenges of globalization?

one. Challenges include differences in infrastructure, labor laws and regulations, legal restrictions,eanderslanguages, customs,and preferences.

6. What does the term meanGraben digitalmy?

one. the separation betweende those who have access toglobal network and those who don't. The digital divide can occur between countries, regions or even neighborhoods.

7. What are the three stages of Jakob Nielsen's digital divide?

Per. andKegelMicrophone, ease of use and training

8. What was one of the main points ofThe rise of the network society?

one. There are two important pointsProchoice of.1It isthis economic activitywas when the book was published1996,organized around the networks that support the new phoneE-communication technologies hadprovided.The otheris that this new global economic activity was different than the past becauseit is an economy capable of functioning as a unit in real time on a planetary scale.

9. Which country has the highest average internet speed? How does your country compare?

one. According to the chart in the chapter, South Korea has the highest internet speeds.SpupilssYou have to search for yourself to compare.

10. What is the OLPC project? Did it work?

one. One laptop per child. For most measuresthisit was not a successful program.

Chapter 12

1. What does the term meanEthics Information Systemsmy?

one. they existseveral ways toreactthisquestion, Then whatthe answermust contain ssomething about the application of ethics to the new skills and cultural norms brought about by information technology.

2. What is a code of ethics? What is a pros and cons of a code of ethics?

one. A code of ethics is a document that describes a set of acceptable behaviors for a professional or social group. ONEThe answers may differ for the second part, but from the text: theOne benefit of a code of ethics is that itclarifies acceptable standards ofbehavior of a professional group.One downside is that it doesn't necessarily have legal force.

3. What does the term meanintellectual propertymy? Set an example.

one. Intellectual property is defined asProperty (such as an idea, invention, or process) that derives from the work of the mind or intellect.

4. What protection does a copyright offer? How do you get one?

one. Copyright ©Schutzaddress the following: who may make copies of the work, who may make derivative works of the original work, who may perform the work in public, who may publicly display the work, and who may distribute the work. You obtain a copyright once the work has been put into tangible form.

5. What is fair use?

one. Fair use is a copyright restriction that allows protected works to be used in certain cases without prior permission.

6. What protection does a patent offer? How do you get one?

one. Once a patent is granted, it offers the inventor protection from infringing third parties.aPatent. In the United States, the owner of a patent has the right tobar others from making, using, offering for sale, or selling the invention in the United States or importing the invention into the United States for a limited time in exchange for public disclosure of the invention when the patent is granted.You can obtain a patent by registering with the patent office. A patent is granted if the work is found to be original, useful and non-obvious.

7. What does a trademark protect? How do you get one?

one. A trademark protects a word, a phrase, a logo, a shape,or sound identifying a source of goods or services. You can get one by registering with the Patent and Trademark Office (USA). There's one tooordinary-legal mark.

8. What does the term meanPropersonally identifiableTrainingmy?

one. Information about a person to get used toidentify this person'with identityy are referred to as personally identifiable information, or PII.

9. What protections do HIPAA, COPPA, and FERPA provide?

one. the oneanswersThey are as follows:

me. HIPAA:Protegehealth-related records as a special class of personal data.

ii. GLASS:ProtegeTrainingCollected bychildren under thirteen.

iii. FERPA:Protegestudent credentials.

10. How would you explain the concept of NORA?

one. There are several ways to answer this.The basic answer is that NORA (not apparent relation towareness is the process of gathering large amounts of disparate information and then combining it to create profiles of people.

Chapter 13

1. Which countries are the biggest internet users? social media? cell phone, mobile phone?

one. sStudents need to look for this outside of the text as it is constantly changing. There are also different measurement methods: number of users, % ofPopulation, majorityactive users etc. Some good sites areInternet World Statistics,Kissmetrics, e likeWorld Bank.

2. Which country had the highest internet growth (in %) between 2008 and 2012?

That. Iran with 205%

3. How will most people connect to the internet in the future?

one. through mobile devices

4. What are two different uses of wearable technology?

one. There are many answers to this question; Two examples are Google Glass andJawbone UP.

5. What are two different uses of collaborative technologies?

one. therethere are many answers to this; two examples areSoftware that leads us to our goalin no time,eWebsites that review different companies.

6. What are the characteristics of printable technologies?

one. 3D printers allow designers to quickly test prototypes or build something as a proof of concept.Printable Technologies also doit is possible to bring manufacturing to the desktop computer.

7. How will advances in wireless technology and sensors make objects "discoverable"?

one. Advances in wireless technology and sensors will allow physical objects to send and receive data about themselves.

8. What is Expanded Situational Awareness?

one. Data from a large number of sensors can give decision makers better insight into real-time events, especially when using sensors with advanced display or visualization technologies.

9. What is a nanobot?

one. A nanobot is a robot whose components are roughly one nanometer in size.

10. What is a UAV?

one. An unmanned aerial vehicle a small plane or helicopter that can fly without a pilot.UAVsare carried out by computerremote control.


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